重庆云南四川贵州浙江河南江苏陕西广东广西辽宁吉林青海河北山东山西安徽湖北江西天津甘肃北京湖南海南上海内蒙西藏新疆宁夏福建黑龙江港澳台及国际地区

当前位置: 重庆专升本 > 备考资料 > 学习方法

专升本英语长难句怎么学?一文告诉你

发布日期:2020/03/26来源:易学仕在线 阅读量:2714

专升本英语长难句怎么学?如你所知,专升本阅读理解的文章中,长难句出现是必然。换句话说,考生对于长难句的理解水平越高,阅读理解成绩获得高分的可能性越大。因此,学会长难句分析尤为关键。那么,长难句出现的原因是什么?到底应该怎么分析长难句呢?今天我们来帮助大家解决这个难题。

 

一、长难句出现的原因

1)中心词加了较多修饰语,后置的定语给理解带来较大困难。

2)简单句加了较多修饰语,尤其是非谓语动词,含义丰富,形式灵活。

3)含有三大从句的复合句。

4)并列成分、对等结构的存在。

5)同位语、插入语的运用。

6)特殊句式的使用:倒装、强调句型和省略。

 

二、分析长难句的方法与策略

(一)抓住主干,分清主次

何为句子主干?即句子的主语和谓语。

1. 句子主语

主语(subject) 是一个句子的主题(theme), 是句子所述说的主体。它的位置一般在句首。主语一般有名词、代词、数词、动名词、不定式、主语从句来充当。

1)A man called you just now.( 名词)

2)Most of us like surfing the Internet.(代词)

3)One in ten were for the plan.(数词)

4)It is kind of you to give me so much help.(不定式)

5)Helping others is helping yourself.(动名词)

6)Whether he will come is uncertain.(主语从句)

7)It's said that he will not come back again.(主语从句)

 

2. 句子谓语

谓语(predicate) 或谓语动词(predicate verb) 的位置一般在主语之后。谓语有简单谓语和复合谓语两种。简单谓语是由一个行为动词构成的,比较容易识别。复合谓语包括情态动词+ 动词原形、连系动词+ 表语、动词短语及被动语态bedone、进行时态be doing、完成时态 has/ have done、将来时态will do / be going to do 等。

1)You can make a difference if you are confident.

2)He was followed by the fans.

3)I was about to go out when my phone rang.

 

(二)以连词为分界点,确定句子是并列句或复合句

并列连词连接并列句,常见的并列连词有and, but, yet, or,so, for ,not only...but also,while(然而)。

从属连词连接复合句,常见的从属连词引导状语从句的有when, after, before, till, until, since, though, although, because等,引导定语从句的有 that,who, whom, which,where, when 等,引导名词性从句的有what, that 等。

 

(三)确定中心名词,识别后置定语

后置定语通常以不定式、分词、介词短语、定语从句等形式体现。此外,定语也可能不是一个,可能出现“B 的A”形式和“C 的B 的A”形式,也可能出现“B 和C 的A”形式,必要时应逐一分析。

1)I got a chance to give a speech at the meeting.(B 的A)

2)The girl wearing sunglasses is LiuXuan.(B 的A)

3)I like the book written by DongQing.(B 的A)

4)The boy with a book in his hand is Jim.(B 的A)

5)The man who helped you is my boss.(B 的A)

6)The boy with a book in his hand written by DongQing is Jim.(C 的B 的A)

7)The man with a book in his hand who helped you is my boss.(B 和C 的A)

 

(四)正确理解非谓语动词的含义

非谓语动词是句子中的次要动词,保留了动词的部分特征,有时态、语态,但其有自己的特征。尤其是当分词做定语和分词做状语时,学生非常容易混淆。分词作定语相当于定语从句,分词做状语相当于状语从句或并列句。

1)She is a pupil admired by all her classmates.( 定语)

=She is a pupil who is admired by all her classmates.

2)This is the novel translated into a few languages(. 定语)

=This is the novel that has translated into a few languages.

3)Written in a hurry, this article was not so good.(原因状语)

=Because it was Written in a hurry, this article was not so good.

4)Following the teacher, the students walked into the office.(伴随状语)

=The students followed the teacher, and the students walked into the office.

 

(五)同位语

由两个或两个以上同一层次的语言单位组成的结构,后项是前项的同位语。

1)Mr Zhang, our president, asked us not to punish students.

2)Tony, one of the most clever boys in our school, is planning to attend the university.

3)They were worried over the fact that you could not take part in the sports meeting.

4)The news that he was ill is not true.

 

(六)把介词短语看成一个整体

介词短语在句子中充当表语、定语、状语等。

1)In spite of the difficulties, we went on with our work.

2)Apps are of great use.

3)Did you like the last grand fashion show of the 20thcentury?

 

三、长难句的分析实例

(Book 6 Unit 5 The power of nature )

1)Sometimes working outdoors, sometimes in an office, sometimes using scientific equipment and sometimes meeting local people and tourists, I am never bored.

分析:此句主干是I am never bored,而其前面出现了四个状语,分别是working outdoors, in an office, using scientific equipment 和meeting local people and tourists。

2)Although my job is occasionally dangerous, I don't mind because danger excites me and makes me feel alive.

分析:此句是句套从句,第一层是although 引导的让步状语从句,第二层是because 引导的原因状语从句。

3)However, the most important thing about my job is that I help protect ordinary people from one of the most powerful forces on the earth- volcano.

分析:此句是that 引导的表语从句,从句中出现了两个介词短语of the most powerful forces和on the earth,我们可以把它们看成是一个整体。

4)I was appointed as volcanologist information for a database about Mount Kilauea, which is one of the most active volcanoes in Hawaii.

分析:which 引导的是一个非限制性定语从句,主句中 information 是中心词,for a database about Mount Kilauea 是其定语,而在这个介词短语中又有一个中心词database,所以就形成了“C 的B 的A”结构。

5)Having collected and evaluated the information,I help other scientists to predict where lava from the volcano will flow next and how fast.

分析:此句难点有三处,一是doing 的完成时,相当于一个时间状语从句;二是predict 后为宾语从句;三是宾语从句中需识别出中心名词lava, 而其后的from the volcano 是其后置定语。

 

 

推荐阅读

专升本英语作文八大必背句型

上一篇:

下一篇: